AUTHORS: Shahid AS, Ahmed T, Shahunja KM, Kabir S, Chowdhury F, Faruque AS, Das SK, Sarker MH, Bardhan PK, Chisti MJ
BACKGROUND: Although Streptococcal bacteremia is common in diarrheal children with high morbidity and mortality, no systematic data are available on Streptococcal bacteremia in diarrheal children. We sought to evaluate the factors associated with Streptococcal bacteremia in diarrheal children under five years of age and their outcome.
METHODS: We used an unmatched case-control design to investigate the associated factors with Streptococcal bacteremia in all the diarrheal children under five years of age through electronic medical record system of Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. We had simultaneously used a retrospective cohort design to further evaluate the outcome of our study children. All the enrolled children had their blood culture done between January 2010 and December 2012. Comparison was made among the children with (cases = 26) and without Streptococcal bacteremia (controls = 78). Controls were selected randomly from hospitalized diarrheal children under five years of age.
RESULTS: Cases had proportionately higher deaths compared to controls, but it was statistically insignificant (15% vs. 10%, p = 0.49). The cases more often presented with severe dehydration, fever, respiratory distress, severe sepsis, and abnormal mental status compared to the controls (for all p<0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, it has been found that Streptococcal bacteremia in diarrheal children under five years of age was independently associated with nutritional edema (OR: 5.86, 95% CI = 1.28-26.80), hypoxemia (OR: 19.39, 95% CI = 2.14-175.91), fever (OR: 4.44, 95% CI = 1.13-17.42), delayed capillary refill time (OR: 7.00, 95% CI = 1.36-35.93), and respiratory distress (OR: 2.69, 95% CI = 1.02-7.12).
CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results of our analyses suggest that diarrheal children under five years of age presenting with nutritional edema, hypoxemia, fever, delayed capillary refill time, and respiratory distress may be at risk of Streptococcal bacteremia. It underscores the importance of identification of these simple clinical parameters for the prompt recognition and management in order to reduce the morbidity and death of such children especially in resource limited settings.